The cervical cancer is the tumor originated from a malignant transformation of epithelial cells from this segment of the uterus. It represents the second leading cause of gynecological cancer death in women, and the estimated number of new cases and deaths due to endometrial cancer in Europe in 2007 is: 10,370 and 3,710, respectively (1,900 and 600 in Spain).
The prognosis of this disease depends largely on how advanced the disease is at the diagnosis. It has been found that in certain risk groups favouring factors of the presence of cervical cancer exist. The most important ones are the start of sexual intercourse at an early age, multiple sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted diseases especially the human papillomavirus (HPV) and multiple births, among other.
The therapeutic measures currently available for the treatment of cervical cancer are surgery and radiotherapy, which act in a supplementary manner. Chemotherapy has acquired in recent years a high position in order to combat this kind of tumor. When cancer is in its early stages, confined to the epithelium of the cervix, conization surgery can be practiced. It consists in the removal of a portion of the cervix (cone-shaped). This measure should be carried out especially in the case of young women who have not had children or wish to have more.
Among the main factors that influence the prognosis are: the stadium, the volume and grade of the tumor, histological type, the lymphatic spread and vascular invasion.
Some epidemiological studies demonstrate convincingly that the greatest risk factor for the development of pre-invasive or invasive cervix carcinoma is the infection of human papillomaviruses (HPV), which is much higher than other known risk factors, such as high parity , a high number of sexual partners, the first sexual intercourse with at an early age, low socioeconomic status and a history as a smoker. Other studies show that patients with low risk cytology and with high-risk HPV infection types 16, 18 and 31 are more likely to have CIN neoplasia or microinvasive histopathology at the time of the biopsy. Several studies indicate that the acute infection with HPV types 16 and 18 gave a risk of 11 to 17 times of rapid development of high-grade CIN, and currently, it is been determined how the HPV typing can be used to help to stratify women in monitoring and treatment.
OTHER GYNECOLOGICAL TUMORS (Breast)
GENETADI will soon offer genetic testing services in BREAST CANCER using FISH and the detection of mutations.
OTHER TUMORS IN THE GENITO-URINARY SYSTEM (Prostate)
GENETADI will soon offer genetic testing services in PROSTATE CANCER using FISH and by the detection of mutations.
OTHER TUMORS: Ovary, testis
GENETADI will soon offer genetic testing services in OTHER CANCER TYPES using: FISH, M-FISH SEQUENCING and through COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION MICROARRAYS (aCGH).
|DETERMINATION OF CHROMOSOMOPATHY IN BIOPSIES
||FISH, M-FISH, CGH MICROARRAYS (aCGH)
|QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE GENIC EXPRESSION IN ENDOMETRIAL BIOPSIES
|GENOTIPADO VIRUS PAPILOMA HUMANO (HPV)
||PCR Y SECUENCIACIÓN